In some dashboards, particularly those that measure performance and/or growth, Analytics calculates a **Z-score**. The Z-score may also be referred to as a standard score, Z-value or normal score.

A Z-score is a statistical value that describes the data point's distance from the mean of the data set, in multiples of the standard deviation. Z-scores are an important tool for understanding a student's position relative to a cohort.

A Z-score is calculated using the following formula:

Where:

- μ is the mean of the data set; and
- σ is the standard deviation of the data set.

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